The association of Rolandic spikes with the neuropsychological profile of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was studied in a total of 48 patients at JW Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main; and Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany. Sixteen children with ADHD and Rolandic spikes (RS) were compared with 16 ADHD children without epileptiform EEG discharges, and 16 healthy controls. The neuropsychological test battery focussed on attentional processing, cognitive efficiency, response inhibition, visuospatial and auditory-verbal short-term memory and language functioning. ADHD children with RS, compared to ADHD without RS and controls, showed impairments in performance of a Continuous Performance Task, with more commission errors, indicating deficient inhibition of an ongoing response, and errors on the Stroop task, with deficient interference control, both pointing to an increased impulsivity (lack of response inhibition). 
COMMENT. This study demonstrates two forms of response inhibition in ADHD children with Rolandic spikes (RS) compared to ADHD children without RS and controls. These are deficient inhibition of an ongoing response, and deficient interference control, both deficits pointing to an increased impulsivity, or lack of response inhibition. These findings confirm previous reports of increased distractibility and impulsivity, and impaired inhibitory control in children with Rolandic spikes.